Helminth infection is one of the major causes of morbidity in all age groups in developing countries. More than a quarter of the world's population is infected with parasites. In developed countries the spread of worms much less linked to better hygiene and food safety.
Helminth eggs can be present in food, water, air, faeces, domestic and wild animals, as well as such items such as a toilet seat and door handles. They enter the body through the mouth, nose or anus. After getting the eggs in the intestine they hatch, the larvae grow and multiply. Some of the worms look so small that they are not visible to the naked eye, while others grow huge. If the worms are small, they can easily enter the bloodstream and spread throughout the body in search of a suitable place for growth and reproduction.
Worms in humans is the cause of the damage and destruction of the tissues of the host organism. They produce their own toxic substances, which can cause a number of unwanted and serious health problems. Human worms can cause many problems, such as diarrhea, fatigue, rash, nervousness, asthma and anemia. Worms in humans can be revealed on the basis of the survey and inspection of the patient, laboratory tests of stool, and sometimes other tests.
The main types of worms in humans
More than 340 species of helminths. Most of them are rare in humans, but can infect animals, which becomes a reservoir of infection.
All worms can be divided into three categories:
- Tapeworms (cestodes).
- Flukes (trematodes).
- Roundworms (nematodes).
Adults have the elongated, segmented form, they live in the intestine. Tapeworms get oxygen and nutrients directly to the external surface. They are not separate systems, digestion or circulation. Tapeworms can be different sizes: from microscopic to several meters long. The most common representative of this class of worms in humans is the tapeworm.
Trematodes got its name from the fact that I have at least one external suction cup that they use to connect to the host. Adults are in the form of a disc. Speakers oral and abdominal suckers help the parasite to remain in place. They can live in various organs, including small intestine, bladder, rectum, liver, spleen, lungs and veins. This class of worms are common in tropical countries. These are liver Fluke, etc.
The most common round worms pinworm, roundworm, Trichinella, etc they have a hollow trunk and a hole in their heads. These worms are common in Pets, who can easily get infected and the people. Most often infection occurs, round worms contaminated food or Pets.
Signs of the presence of worms
People have different symptoms of a parasite, depending on what are the worms in their body. Symptoms of digestive system:
- Pain in the abdomen.
- Poor absorption of nutrients.
- Itching in the anal area.
- Of rectal prolapse.
- Intestinal obstruction.
- Blockage of the bile duct, the inflammation.
- The growth temperature.
- Heart failure.
- Bronchial spasm.
- Inflammation of the lung.
- Skin symptoms (eg. urticaria).
Sometimes a person's immune system gets a little damage to the worms. But in some cases, the damage can be much more serious worms can even kill its owner. In addition, the worms consume nutrients from the body of his master, they are still isolated from the products of their life sharing. This can cause damage to the tissues and organs of the host, weakening his defenses and the immune system.
How to prevent infection?
To minimize the chances of infection of helminths, follow these tips.
- Contaminated food and water pose a risk of infection, so take adequate precautions regarding hygiene, nutrition and drinking water.
- Wash your hands with soap before eating, after using the toilet and immediately after contact with preschool children, animals or feces.
- Do not eat salads, and unpeeled raw fruits and raw vegetables. Eat only hot and completely cooked food. Fruits need to washed first with water and then peel. Do not use tap water for drinking, cooking, beverages and ice, brush your teeth, rinse your mouth with during or shower bathing bath.
- Do not contact with water, which may be contaminated with sewage or faeces.
- Do not go barefoot where there may be feces.