The body uses as a source of food and habitat for other organisms, causing them in most cases harm.
Some parasites can use a human host, what harm they cause to the body, features of diagnostics and tests for parasites, and there is a general way of the parasite, read the article.
Type of parasite
A parasite is a living organism living in (endoparasite) or on (ectoparasites) a second organism. The parasite can be fixed, obliges, through the entire life cycle, staying in a host (another organism), and use it only in certain stages, the so-called interim or discretionary parasitism. Some of the parasite throughout the life cycle of the host, began the development together with the body and ends in another. That is, some parasitic organisms alongside the host only for a certain period of time, changing owners, or exist independently of the rest of the time, others begin and end their life cycle in one body.
The purpose of the introduction of the parasite is to obtain nutrients, for safety, obtain the necessary development environment. Parasitic organisms can impair the quality of life of the owner, cause irritation, affect the dysfunction, ruin the fabric and also excrete toxins, promote the development of diseases. It is believed that the parasite evolyutsioniruet in the direction of decreasing harm to the host organism, thereby extending the opportunity to be at his expense.
In a separate category out of the parasite: as a rule, dipterous or hymenopterous insects, eggs, organs of animals or insects, which provide excudant larvae eat. With the birth of larvae to the host will die, becoming food for new parasit then. Their action is characterized by a combination of parasitism and predation.
Such a parasit, then you are, for example, the emerald blattam wasp bites, which is seeking partial paralysis and subordinate behavior of a cockroach. Then the wasp deposits an egg in the body of the insect and carries it into the hole. Hatching larvae eat the cockroach. Some insects so parasites honed the skills of parasitism, that colonize the host and affect its behavior for a long time. The larvae of several species of organisms-owners parasites, Glyptapanteles (wasp-rider) to protect hatched larvae of the enemy, as well as being food for them.
Classic parasitism is a special case of symbiosis, the coexistence of the two organisms. Such a common residence may be beneficial to the host and the parasite to harm one of the participants or the process happen without much influence. Different life forms, including parasitism, it is sometimes difficult to draw a clear line. For example, some forms of helminths to reduce the sensitivity of the human body to allergens, at the same time, causing damage and affect the conditionally positive health of the owner. Also known as hirudotherapy, the use of leeches for medical purposes – an ancient form of treatment for various diseases, is used as one of the methods of alternative medicine in today's world.
Can parasitize bacteria, insects, plants, birds... for Example, the cuckoo refers to a kind of "nest or eggs of the parasite", because it brings the eggs into the nests of other birds. The same behaviour have some other birds and fish and insects. Certain varieties of plants, such as broomrape, are root parasites growing on the roots of the plants and fed at the expense of other plants. The famous chaga mushroom, used in medicine, is a parasite growing on trunk of birch.
Numerous types of parasites – protozoa, helminths and insects. These parasites in the human body and on its surface is common.
Parasites in the human body
Parasites in the human body can be quite varied: the simplest life forms, viruses, fungi, worms, bacteria. In accordance with the classification of viruses (intracellular parasite) and bacteria also belong to the parasitica species, but more often, speaking about parasites in the human body, referring to protozoa and helminths.
As parasites, protozoa are the simplest forms of life. 17 species of protozoa that can cause disease in humans. They are so exotic, that the Russian species such as Trypanosoma brucei, laptop infected tsetse fly. Trypanosoma brucei causes sleeping sickness or African trypanosomiasis characterized by confusion and sleep disturbance. The disease is most often found in the tropics of Africa, the Congo basin and Russia is extremely rare. Amoebiasis, caused by dysentery amoeba, is the second death master human parasitic disease in the world, it affects every tenth inhabitant of the Country. The most common is amoebiasis in regions with tropical climate and poor sanitary conditions.
Malaria is also caused by parasites carried by an infected mosquito. According to statistics, every year fall ill from malaria to 250 million people.
The most common in the world three types of protozoan parasites – Giardia (giardiasis disease), Toxoplasma gondii (toxoplasmosis) and Trichomonas (trichomoniasis).
Giardiasis – a disease of childhood
Giardia has two forms: moving, or vegetative, and form cysts. Infection occurs by ingestion of cysts, which may persist in the environment (soil) up to 3 weeks, and the water-up to 5.
Infection occurs most often in children, when to lick the dirty hands, as well as household goods, as well as the use of vegetables, fruits, berries, not heat-treated. Extended also getting Giardia in the body of the infected anorum water.
Once in the body, moving from Giardia to form cysts grow and multiply in the small intestine, causing irritation. Specific symptoms of giardiasis generally is not clear, limiting such signs, a violation of stool (diarrhea, constipation), biliary dyskinesia, pain in the upper part of the stomach and the navel, nausea, atopic dermatitis, General malaise. Sometimes there is a delay, weight and height of the child.
After moving to the small intestine to the large intestine Giardia lose a favorable environment for reproduction, transformirovalsya again cysts and the environment together with the feces.
Toxoplasmosis is a dangerous disease during pregnancy
Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite do, that the temporary host using the felines. Its increase is possible only in the intestine of these animals, and most foods are cats. Toxoplasma eggs excreted in the feces of an infected animal, and can get in the body of the other Pets and farm animals or people through contact with feces, contaminated soil, eating raw meat. Toxoplasma gondii belongs to such intracellular parasites, these samples is one of the smallest parasites of the Earth.
Cats are the primary host of Toxoplasma, an organism in which the parasite spends most of its life cycle. The bodies of other warm-blooded animals, including humans, Toxoplasma gondii uses a limited time.
The disease occurs in several forms. A normal immune disease is easily tolerated is manifested in the growth of uterine cervical and axillary lymph nodes, periodic low fever, muscle aches, General malaise. A mild form of toxoplasmosis spontaneously without specific treatment.
Chronic toxoplasmosis is involved to change the structure of the eye. The acute form is manifested in a rash, sudden deterioration of health, leading to exhaustion, can cause encephalitis, the brain. As a rule, the development of acute toxoplasmosis usually people with severe immune deficiency.
Infection with toxoplasmosis during pregnancy leads to transmission of infectious agents through the placenta to the fetus. Toxoplasma in this case, the cause of congenital toxoplasmosis in the newborn, which lead to blindness, disorders of the central nervous system, jaundice , abnormalities of the skull bones, mental retardation. Congenital toxoplasmosis in children can occur immediately, symptoms may appear months or years after birth.
The man, who was ill with toxoplasmosis develops immunity, is defined as the presence of antibodies in the blood. If a pregnant woman has no history of the disease toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, she is recommended to remove contact with cat faeces and avoid places of possible accumulation of the rodents.
Trichomoniasis – illness, sexually transmitted diseases
Vaginal Trichomonas Trichomonas vaginalis, the parasite that causes trichomoniasis, one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, sexually transmitted. If the disease develops in women affects the vagina. In men, the parasite tells the urethra and affect the function of the prostate gland.
Most often this parasite is not contagious from one person to another through vaginal intercourse. Infection through anal sex, oral sex, or household form is almost excluded, although Trichomonas can be in a humid environment up to several hours. However, most forms of infection in the household, with the exception of sexual contacts are usually the chronic form of hepatitis C were destroyed, buy a traditional transmission through sexual contact.
Symptoms vary depending on the sex of the patient. Trichomoniasis in men usually progresses without obvious signs, sometimes accompanied by discharge from the urethra, pain, burning, clinical picture of the inflammation of the prostate (prostatitis).
Symptoms of trichomoniasis in women are the following symptoms:
- vaginal discharge yellowish color, sometimes accompanied by an unpleasant odor;
- pain during urination and intercourse;
- hyperemia (swelling, redness), itching, burning sensation in the vulva.
Chronic trichomoniasis may cause development of prostatitis in men. Pregnant women the presence of Trichomonas is filled with premature rupture of membranes, premature pregnancy.
Helminths, or parasitic worms in the body
Every second on Earth, according to which every year become infected with one of the three basic types of helminths.
According to some, 99% of people are infected with parasites. However, serious research, in particular, based on an analysis of patients in clinics and hospitals, does not confirm these figures.
Some parasites helminths belong to? It tapeworms (another name – cestodes), flukes (or trematodes) and round worms, nematodes.
Parasitic worms, which may be of different organisms: animals, birds, fish, plants. Here are the most common worms that affect the human body.
One of the most famous exotic helminths, mention of which has reached us, since the days of Ancient Egypt, bore the name of Brugin malay. This round worm of the genus filaria, when you don't take against disease. Elephantiasis, elefantes – disease, which is characterized by a persistent stagnation of the lymph nodes, severe swelling in different parts of the body.
Diseased limbs (most often the feet, although it is found and elephantiasis of the scrotum) covered with warts, ulcers and significantly increase in size. The similarity of the effect on the foot advanced stage of the disease the legs of the elephant caused the selection the name of the disease.
More generally, elephantiasis, or elephantiasis a disease found in the tropics. The vector mosquitoes are infected by filaria.
All parasitic worms at a certain stage of development, leaving the body's most important host due to a temporary existence in the external environment or the body of the intermediate host.
Depending on the transmission path to divide the classification of disease vectors:
- mechanical shape vector contains only the movement of the parasites within a certain distance. For example, flies and birds in the limbs can carry helminth eggs in the new environment;
- a certain type of practitioner providing the parasite with food or living conditions, however, this host is temporary. For example, Echinococcus that exists in the human body, such as the permanent host selects the animals of the family Canidae (dogs, jackals, wolves), and man (and some agricultural, domestic and wild animals) in this case is the operator of a special type.
Hydatid disease is a dangerous parasitic disease. Transfer the pathogen to humans occurs when cysts spread through the feces of an infected animal. If the area is infected, the pathogen can be spread by gusts of wind, to get inside their apartment and land on already processed foods or clean dishes. The most dangerous areas close to the pastures, farms, slaughterhouses, located on the territory of the increased danger of infection.
Type of transfer insulated contact (when the parasite is introduced into the body through the skin or mucous membranes of the shell in the area) and food, which provides the ingress of pathogens into the body together with the ingestion of food or water.