Worms in humans cause the development of diseases, united by the common name helminths. Worms is worms-parasites that can be found in almost all organs of our body: organs, muscles, lungs, liver, heart and even the eyes.
In the presence of the worms in humans, symptoms do not always occur, if there is to be disguised as other diseases, liver, gastrointestinal tract, gall bladder, etc. Sometimes these symptoms are so ambiguous, that the cause of the problem can be very problematic, especially when it concerns children.
Today we know quite a lot of parasites that can infect the human body. There are about 150 kinds of helminths. All worms in the form and structure of the body is divided into two main groups: the roundworms, or nematodes, and flat worms.
Most of the infected worms exposed children, and the most common forms of helminth infections (caused by parasitic worms) diseases are ascariasis and enterobiasis. The most dangerous worms, can live in the human body, are the Echinococcus and the alveolar. Each group of parasites have developed special ways of treatment, which brings the worms out of the body of an adult or a child.
Types of worms in humans
Worms that affect people, there are more than two hundred types. Most of them in the middle lane is not found, as in Russia overall, about sixty species. Parasites are divided into common (the worms are transferred from one person to another), the geohelminths (the larvae live in the soil and infection occurs by ingestion of soil particles of food) and biohelminths (the parasite are excreted in human body meat from infected animals or fish).
Call some of the most common groups of intestinal worms in humans:
- Anneli – pinworm, roundworm, whipworm, Trichinella;
- Tapeworms are a variety of tapeworm, Echinococcus, lentetsy;
- Flat worms – all kinds of nests, Fluke.
Let us consider in more detail each type of worms that live in the body of an adult.
- Ascarids are large roundworms, red-yellow, in adulthood, to achieve lengths of up to 40 cm
- Whip worm, round worm a length of 30-50 mm, got its name because of the shape of the body: the front part is long and narrow, like hair, and back short and wide.
- The tapeworm is the largest tape-worm, reaching a length of about 10 meters, can meet the individuals whose length is more than 20 meters.
- Hookworms – the combined name for two types of worms: Hookworms in duodenum and necator, a shuttle length of 10-15 mm.
- Trichinella are small round worms with a length of 2-5 mm, causing serious disease – trichinosis.
- Pay dens (cat Fluke) is a flatworm class caves the length of 7-20 mm. A disease caused by a parasite, which is called "opisthorchiasis"
- Pork and beef tapeworm – similar structure of the tapeworms of a length not exceeding 6 meters.
- It Echinococcus parasite in the human body is not adult form, but an intermediate form – the Finns. It Echinococcus is a tapeworm, whose length is 3-5 mm
- Alveolar – like Echinococcus worm, which is similar in structure and mechanism of development.
Symptoms and signs of worms depend on the parasite, its location in the body, and what stage of its development.
How do you get?
The causes of worms infecting humans is very diverse, the route of infection depends on worms and their life cycle, it can be:
- eat dirty vegetables.
- failure to comply with rules of hygiene when preparing food;
- weak heat treatment in some foods, especially meat and fish;
- contact Pets – cats, dogs, some rodents;
- failure to comply with the rules of hygiene before eating, after visiting the bathroom, after returning from a walk;
- swimming in the infected waters.
Of course, their life worms produce toxic substances which are absorbed into the bloodstream and spread throughout the body, damaging vital organs and systems.
Symptoms of worms in humans
Sometimes the worms are able to for a long time without noticeable symptoms parasite in the body of an adult, in some cases, they will cause a variety of chronic diseases, and cause dangerous complications and even death.
With the onset of acute helminthiasis, worms is taken to feed in the intestines of the sick person, causing different signs of digestive system: dysbacteriosis, stomach pain, diarrhea.
Let's see, what are the signs of worms? We list the most common, General symptoms of worms in humans.
- Malfunction of the gastrointestinal tract – diarrhea, constipation and abdominal pain;
- Pain in joints and muscles parasites can enter the human body, whose purpose is to solve the convenient of their life areas, for example joint fluid and muscle. When this happens, the person will experience tenderness;
- Disorders of the nervous system and General malaise – manifested in the form of fatigue, irritability, sleep disturbances, and memory problems;
- Allergic reactions and skin manifestations – the appearance of pimples, blackheads and other skin rashes, there is also evidence for the presence of worms in humans;
- Reduced immunity, and as a consequence the development of infectious diseases;
- The sharp decline in body weight;
- Anaemia – worms suck blood from the intestinal wall, such as leeches;
- Teeth grinding in sleep and sleep disorders;
- Itching in the anus, especially at night. Currently, women actively lays eggs, causing itching in the anus;
- Swollen lymph nodes, subfebrile body temperature;
- Inflammation of the respiratory tract – cough, fever, sputum, runny nose – that is, how can affect the presence of worms.
Like parasites, worms feeding on the body of his master. At the same time they absorb large amounts of protein and carbohydrates, mineral elements, vitamins and other nutrients. Helminth infections can be acute or chronic. The first lasts for 2-3 weeks, and is often present allergies, chronic phase can last for months, years and even decades.
The test for determining the possible worm infestation
To determine the worms in the body need to answer the following questions and count the number of positive answers:
- There is a bitter taste in the mouth;
- Fatigue, constant fatigue;
- The work of the child care or in children of preschool age;
- Sometimes unmotivated fever;
- Yellow skin and mucous membranes;
- Repeated or constant itching in the anus;
- There is a rash on the skin;
- Often headache, dizziness;
- There is nausea, vomiting;
- Often bloating, flatulence, constipation, diarrhea;
- Restless sleep, insomnia, screaming during sleep;
- Swollen feet (cause);
- Allergic reactions – hives, asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic cough;
- Enlarged lymph nodes;
- There are abdominal pain, stop independently;
- Work related to animals or Pets;
- There are muscle and joint pain without the load;
- Do you snore or grind their teeth at night;
- Like to eat the flesh and blood, dried fish, fat-striped meat, sushi;
- Reduced weight in the background to reduce or respectively increase appetite;
- Often eat raw fruits, vegetables, herbs, berries, without washing or watering them with boiling water before use.
If positive answers to seven, it is likely the presence of worms in the body. If positive answers more than 15, the probability of attack at a high level. This is a clear reason for going to a specialist and perform high-quality diagnostics.
The diagnosis of worms is aimed at detecting the parasite or its eggs and larvae in the feces and antibodies to those blood or other biological substances.
Analysis of feces and scraping on helminth eggs
Worms are primarily intestinal parasites. It is through the intestines are their eggs. Therefore, their diagnosis take a stool sample. In the pharmacy collection of feces is possible to acquire a special container, but you can also use a matchbox or a jar.
So, to pass the test, you will need a container to collect the material, and with a spatula, If the person sees fragments of worms, or whole worms, it is also necessary to send to the lab.
No need to carry a stool to the laboratory immediately after collection. It must be submitted to study during the day. Until the collected biological material will be stored in the refrigerator. The exception is the collection of stool for testing for giardiasis. It is necessary to take warm, as when it is cooled cysts of the parasite are destroyed. On time delivery of stool to the laboratory, the container should be wrapped in a warm cloth.
For the diagnosis of enterobiasis take a scraping of the anal folds, because the female pinworms lay eggs in this area. Before analysis should not fall below about 12 hours, or use the restroom. Therefore, the optimal time to make analysis in the morning.
Curettage is performed with a cotton swab, which is placed in a clean container and transported to the laboratory. You can also use tape.
Delivered to the laboratory the biological material studied under a microscope. If a person is contaminated, the technician to see the eggs of worms, their larvae or segment. Each parasite lays eggs, is characterized by only one of its kind. Therefore, studying the structure of the egg, you can find out what kind of worm parasite in the human body.
If there is a worm in the stool, most often it looks like a white stripe of varying lengths. Worms can maintain mobility. To determine the species of worm can in the laboratory.
However, by using the stool sample is not always possible to detect the worms. For example, the analysis would be uninformative, if the human body of parasites, only men, ascarids, which can save the eggs.
To identify the worms in the blood used in immunological research to define its antibodies against the main species of worms. Accuracy and precision of ELISA is as high as 95%. It can be used to detect extraintestinal forms of helminthiasis.
When interpreting the results of the IFA in a simplified form:
- Parasitic worms in the body, if the blood of immunoglobulin M (lgM).
- Worms in the human body or were present before, or worm infestation take a chronic and caused the weakening of human immunity. This conclusion can be made, if elevated levels of immunoglobulins igg and lgM in the blood is detected.
In both cases you will need more advanced diagnostics and to perform special treatment.
Treatment of worms in humans
The mainstay of treatment of worms in humans is a special de-worming medications, adults assign time-tested best pills.
The choice of drug treatment depends on the specific presence of worms in the human body. The acute period of the disease, the doctor may prescribe the patient anti-allergic drugs.
Only on the basis of tests, the diagnosis, the doctor will prescribe treatment for worms in humans as medicines against worms is quite toxic. If you examine the worms found again, the doctor determines how to bring in worms, offering a new treatment based on the use of other tablets of worms, which has to cope with the task.
How the treatment of worms folk remedies
Traditional methods of treatment are medicinal plants with laxative effect. Although the effectiveness of these products have not been scientifically tested, many of them have been used since ancient times to treat worms in humans in the home.
- The best folk remedy — pumpkin seeds, worms. Take the clean pumpkin seeds (80-100g), be careful not to damage the green skin. Mash them, add 2 tablespoons of honey and 100 grams of water, stir. Tool is definitely in the morning on an empty stomach. One of the tables in the boat, every hour, for 3 hours. When you need to take a laxative, and 1-2 hours from the enema.
- Grenades. The bark of the pomegranate tree contains punic, which is very toxic to the worms. A decoction of the bark of fresh water should be taken three times a day for adults and children suffering from parasites.
- Onion broth (1 onion, pour 200 ml of boiling water, to insist 2 days, to consume before meals for 4 days)
With regard to prevention, prevention of worm infestation, you need to wash your hands with soap and water after returning from the street, meat and fish heat-treated, do not drink unboiled water and bathe in the polluted waters.
Prevention – the best treatment
Due to the toxicity of anthelmintic drugs preventive medication is not prescribed without a serious reason. Sufficient reason for the treatment can be detected in worms Pets or any family members. Also required is the strict observance of rules of hygiene:
- Change underwear 2 times a day.
- Bring to a boil and ironed with a hot iron underwear and bed linen.
- After using the toilet and personal hygiene to wash and disinfect their hands.
- Every day do at home wet cleaning, use disinfectants (especially the bathroom and kitchen).