Over millions of years, which have elapsed since the appearance of the first living organism, the majority of protozoa have not changed. But learned to adapt to the new environment and find ways to cope. One of the most obvious ways, the existence of these organisms has become a parasitism, including the human body.
What are the protozoan parasites of man
The human body, as the body is any more or less large animals, is a parasitic individuals life is very attractive. In addition, the one-celled organisms, the human body can be inhabited by multicellular parasites (helminths).
Is the habitat of the simplest kind can be endogenous (living inside the human body) or exogenous. Sometimes, the development of the parasites move around the body, choose the most suitable certain stage of development of the living environment.
The microscopic size and the presence of primitive structures allow simple parasites successfully survive and reproduce in extremely difficult circumstances. All members of this type is characterized by a structure consisting of a single cell, filled with cytoplasm – intracellular fluid, which flows through all metabolic processes participation in organelles (structures that perform different functions, to sustain life)
The movement functions can be perform intended flagella, cilia. The main process (power) performed in several ways:
- cellular ingestion through the mouth;
- suction surface membranes.
In adverse circumstances can be a signal for the formation of cyst – resistant to the external environment of the shells. They need simple human parasites move from one host to another and can save the prisoner inside the parasite for several years.
Cyst reproduction characterized by the formation of a thin provisional shell is required simple short period of time to share.
Important! Protozoan parasites are the causative agents of protozoal infections: giardiasis, trichomoniasis, sleeping sickness, amoebic dysentery, malaria, etc.
A variety of protozoa, parasites
According to the method of reproduction and movement, the nature of the power there are 4 main classes of protozoa parasites of man.
Important! The most primitive structure, the formation of cysts, the simplest method of propagation, microscopic in size – all of these factors allow for easy parasite to penetrate into the protected tissues of the human body and no harmful effects source of serious and sometimes difficult to diagnose pathological conditions.
What diseases caused by protozoa parasites
Diseases caused by protozoan parasites, such as.
The main symptoms – bouts of fever, joint pain, vomiting, anemia, convulsions. There can be enlargement of the spleen. Malaria, which is characterized by recurrent course of the disease, periods of rest and exacerbation. Depending on the type of pathogen distinguish the shapes: a three-day, four-day and tropical. The disease is common in Africa and South-east Asia. Over the centuries, as today, the main treatment quinine is still the drug that is made from the bark of the cinchona tree. Despite the creation of synthetic analogues, deaths happened when the infected in areas without access to modern medical care.
Amoebiasis (dysentery amoebiasis)
The simplest is called the parasite – amoeba dysentery class. Infection may use intestinal(development in the liver). After the first 7-10 days after infection the first symptoms appear: abdominal pain, weakness, subfebrile temperature (+37,5⁰). About 10% may appear severe diarrhea with blood and mucus. Every third of those infected will develop a fever. Characterized by enlargement of the liver and, in some cases, liver abscess. If treatment is not started timely, prolonged diarrhea causes dehydration, weakness and fatigue patient. The outbreak is typical for countries with a hot climate.
The disease is caused by parasites of the class of flagellates. The main symptoms of the skin and Muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis, lesions of the skin in the form of ulcers. This Muco-skin form can cause swelling and deformation. If the process of the respiratory tract, and in rare cases can be life-threatening. For the visceral form is characterized by enlargement of the liver and spleen, fever and anaemia. The disease has spread to 88 countries, mainly in tropical and subtropical climates.
The disease is caused by Trichomonas – a parasite class of flagellates. Loss exposed to urine. The main symptoms in women are itching and burning, redness of the external genitalia, the presence of discharge with an unpleasant odor, sometimes you may face discomfort during intercourse and urination. Men in most cases the disease is asymptomatic, sometimes there may be pain during urination and bleeding, the symptoms of prostatitis.
Pathogen – a parasite class of ciliates. The characteristic symptom is abdominal pain, diarrhea. In acute cases the disease is possible rise in temperature, symptoms of poisoning. Infection can be chronic in nature, with intermittent periods of remission and exacerbation. In complex cases, the possibility of intestinal perforation and peritonitis.
The disease is caused by parasites of the class sporozoa – Gondii. The characteristic symptoms of the disease are damage to the eyes, nervous system, muscles, heart, lymph node enlargement, liver and spleen. Occurs mainly in a chronic form. Often the primary infection takes place very easily under the guise of the traditional SARS. Then forever there is immunity, and further infection is impossible. The greatest danger is to the fetus during pregnancy: if the child survives, with severe damage to the nervous system, eyes.
The disease is caused by parasites simplest class of flagellates. Features in the first stage include fever, headache and joint. After 7-20 days after the second stage of the disease: is the perception of the world, failures of coordination, numbness, sleep disturbances. Cases of the disease is localized in certain regions of tropical Africa, the habitat of the primary vector – the tsetse fly.
Pathogen – a parasite class of flagellates. The primary symptoms are fever, swollen lymph nodes, headache, swelling of the bite. In the primary stage, symptoms may be absent, and after 8-12 weeks of 30-40% can start to develop secondary symptoms: enlargement of the ventricles of the heart, the expansion of the esophagus, increase in the colon. In the second stage of the disease can last for 10-30 years after infection. General infection has got in Latin America.
Important! Most protozoa parasites penetrate the human body non-compliance with elementary rules of sanitation and personal hygiene.
Ways of infection
The penetration of any micro-organism inside the human body can take place by introducing through the skin or natural openings. Most of these environment protozoa, parasites methods of infection, a man just four of the most common:
- Contact-household. This route of infection is available, the simplest organisms in violation of the rules of sanitation and personal hygiene. Because the majority of micro-organisms, the transition from the body of the host organism, others may form cysts and remain in this mode until it gets into a favorable environment, in other words – inside the human. Infection can occur anywhere: the use of foreign household items (towel, linen, kitchen utensils), hand washing the dirty water (tank), etc.;
- Fecal-oral (giardiasis). In this case, the infection occurs in the output of the parasites in the intestine with the feces or vomit. Failure to comply with the rules of hygiene, the parasite got into the water, the food or the hands of the new owner and penetrates the body. The source of infection may be poorly washed vegetables and greens, and children's dirty hands after playing in the sandbox or with Pets;
- Contaminated food (toxoplasmosis). The meat of most animals, especially wild, can be protozoan cysts, parasites that inadequate heat treatment of the human body. It is also possible to infection through milk-products, hvac control, and raw fish without sufficient heat treatment;
- Malaria, sleeping sickness. Infection occurs through transfer of the pathogen through saliva with the operator bite. The disease is transmitted by infected insects directly exposed to the organism.
In addition to the basic ways of infection infection can occur in many ways, occurs much less frequently:
- Introduction — the penetration of protozoa, parasites in the infected mother through the placenta to the fetus;
- Sex, infection occurs only through sexual contact.
The risk of infection with protozoan parasites is associated with, above all, in compliance with all rules of sanitation and hygiene. Elimination of infestation can be achieved by sensible adherence to the recommendations:
- Heat processing of meat, milk and fish products sufficient (observance of the temperature conditions technology). Particular attention has been paid to products that have not passed sanitary control;
- Thorough washing of fruits, vegetables, berries and herbs, preferably boiling water. If the impossibility of heat treatment, especially for children, it is better to remove the skin;
- Regular physical examination, especially in cases with suspected infection of protozoan parasites;
- The commitment to one sex partner and the rejection of drugs;
- Prevention of infection of insect bites, you can apply for special measures: drug use, destruction of mosquitoes, mosquito nets and repellents, to develop transgenic mosquitoes (resistant to malaria), a vaccine.
Important! Of great importance is to prevent possible infections, including protozoan parasites, is the level of resistance of the organism. After all, if the cyst gets in adverse circumstances, where it is not enough nutrition or the immune system cells constantly attack the foreign objects, parasites or die or leave the host.
There are a number of products that are natural Immunostimulants (garlic, ginger, broccoli, carrot, green tea), which, when balanced consumption can give your body a good help to increase immunity.
In addition, some products have a negative effect on the growth and reproduction of protozoa, especially settled in the gastrointestinal tract: a porridge made of rice and pearl barley, dried fruits, baked apples, vegetable oil, steamed vegetables. Treatment of parasites it is necessary to limit or eliminate foods that trigger fermentation processes: bread and sugar.
Currently, the pharmaceutical industry offers many high-cost drugs. However, their effective use can only be achieved together with preventive measures and to adhere to a certain diet, which can consult a qualified technician.
It is not necessary to forget and about folk remedies, proven by many generations. In case of combination of all methods and techniques under the supervision of a physician of the parasite remain very little chance.