Helminths (worms) – a huge class of parasitic worms that live in humans, animals and plants. Helminths, parasitic worms, feeding on the internal resources of the body of the "boss" will not only weaken the body, but also contribute to other diseases.
Oddly enough, but almost every second person – the operator of one of the types of worms and not even know it until complications occur or will carry out an additional inspection.
Depending on the climatic zones of different continents are different types of worms. The territory of the Russian Federation there are about 20 species of worms.
Also, worms are divided by way of transfer from organism to organism:
- biohelminths – seize the animal;
- contagious – transmitted from an infected person;
- geohelminths – the larvae are stored in the soil.
Once ingested the larvae are ingested, they move through the body's bloodstream and deposited in the organs.
Most often, the worms settle in different parts of the intestine.
The classification of the place a solution for the parasite:
- translucent worms – live-the hollow bodies;
- the tissue is placed in tissue;
- others may live in the hollow body, and thicker fabrics.
Symptoms of worms in humans
The onset of symptoms in the body can be recognized by these symptoms:
- the acute phase occurs a few days or weeks after infection and is the body's reaction to the introduction of alien parasites and metabolic products;
- in the chronic form. The infection becomes chronic through quite a long time.
Symptoms in the acute phase may occur on the second day or after 6 months, but often after 2 weeks:
- jaundice liver damage;
- muscle pain;
- inflammation of the lymph nodes;
- enlargement of the spleen and liver;
- swelling of the face;
- there is even a nervous breakdown.
The transition of the disease into a chronic form, has these symptoms:
- abscesses organs;
- a decrease in immunity.
Pinworms – the representatives of the shuttle has a circular shape, with a length of about 2 inches. Occur in both adults and children. Settle in the small intestine and develop to larvae to adult in 2 weeks. Pinworms cause the disease enterobiasis.
Infection with pinworms occurs in inflammation of the walls of the gut, disturbed digestion, and toxins worms cause local bleeding.
Enterobiosis occurs in the evening itching in the anus. Itching causes the females to lay their eggs. When combing itching the eggs get under the nails of the person and, therefore, is transferred to the surrounding objects.
Get infected by pinworms is possible, not only through contact with common objects with an infected person, but also vegetables in the garden (eggs stored in the soil), cockroaches and flies can carry the eggs of worms.
When enterobiasis in women parasites can cause inflammation of the genital organs. Also become inflamed and scratching, which leads to staph.
Ascarids – round worms grow up to 40 centimeters and a diameter of about 6 inches. The eggs of ascarids in contact with the soil can be stored there for about a year before getting into a favorable environment for development. When roundworm larva enters the host organism and begins to grow, it produces toxins that affect the lungs, the liver. The larvae travels throughout the body and affect the blood vessels and cause inflammatory damage. Settles in the intestine and pass as its content. A day can lay several thousands of eggs.
Because of its significantly large roundworm in search of food can move to the ducts of the pancreas, bile ducts and liver, causing inflammation of the intestine can get into the throat and block the airway. The cause of such diseases as ascariasis.
The presence of ascarids in the body can be recognized by these symptoms:
- nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain;
- diarrhea, red worms in the feces;
- allergic reactions.
The shuttle has a tendency to curl up into a ball, this is obstruction of the intestine, and as a result of peritonitis.
The main method of infection is dirty hands and retain the eggs in the soil. Presence in the body of whipworm trichocephalus leads to and is manifested by symptoms:
- abdominal pain, loss of appetite;
- diarrhea constipation changes;
- sometimes blood in the stool;
- iron-deficiency anemia.
The Species Trichinella
Species Trichinella worm, the length of which is 5 millimeters. Strikes with food, especially undercooked meat. Settles in the small intestine and there tell. The bloodstream the larvae spread throughout the body.
The species Trichinella causes the disease symptoms of trichinosis:
- loss of appetite;
- violation of the gastrointestinal tract;
- abdominal pain;
- nausea, vomiting.
If treatment is not carried out, the symptoms only grew stronger. Develop Allergy, such as hives, rash, gives the complications of respiratory, nervous system, cardiovascular system.
This species of nematodes live in the stomach of the dog and the feces the eggs fall to the ground. Externally similar to the ascaris parasite, but grows only 15 inches. The entire life cycle of toxocara is considered the body of a dog, then get a favorable environment for humans, the larvae perish, but have time to hurt. Hit the muscles, liver, lungs, heart, tissues of the eye, the brain, the disease toxocariasis.
Operation of toxocara larvae in the body manifested by such symptoms:
- temperature rise;
- swollen lymph nodes and the liver;
- shortness of breath, wheezing, dry cough;
- mental disorders and seizures;
- a blood test shows the presence of eosinophils.
You can confirm the diagnosis through scraping the affected area of the skin, a blood test for antibodies, liver biopsy.
Cestodes (tape, wide worms) live in the intestine and larvae can spread throughout the body.
The tapeworm reaches 10 meters long. Cracks the head is attached to the surface of the intestine. The human body gets raw freshwater fish as larvae, and develop fully within a month. The cause of the disease difillobotrioz.
Symptomatic the presence of the parasite in the body appears as follows:
- beriberi lack of vitamin B12, folic acid;
- vomiting, nausea, diarrhea;
- disorders of the gastrointestinal tract;
- the growth temperature.
This parasite is nourished by absorption of nutrients to the surface all of his considerable. Point of attachment of the broad tapeworm develops gangrene. Calais displayed segment (includes eggs) of the worm and its eggs.
Beef tapeworm (tapeworm) lives in the small intestine and is 7 meters long. Bovine tapeworm larvae infect man by eating undercooked beef. The larvae are easy to choose meat because their size is about 5 mm. the human body, the larvae grow for 3 months. Propagated by means of segments, which contain up to 150 thousand larvae. Such segments of the body of the beef tapeworm about 2 thousand. These segments independently and come out at night to the anus and spread over the bed.
The presence of this worm can cause disease beef tapeworm infection, which is manifested symptoms:
- the intestinal disorder;
- loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting;
- allergic reactions.
Pork tapeworm can be mixed with the bull, but the size of his modest – 2.5 meters. And the number of segments, this parasite is also smaller – about 1 thousand. Worms head has suckers and a proboscis with hooks, which are attached to the thicker of the intestines. Segment no abilities attached to the intestinal wall, so out in the feces.
You can get infected through raw meat and fat. This helminth to cause disease in the twilight and cysticercosis. The symptoms depends on the number of worms in the body. A large number of parasites can lead to obstruction of the intestine, which can be treated only surgically.
Pets (dogs, cats) can be divided into those people the family of parasites, such as Echinococcus. The cause of the disease echinococcosis. The eggs of this helminth attached to the fur of the animal on the street cal. This tiny worm has only 4 segments.
The parasite gets into the human body via water, unwashed forest berries and summer vegetables, while stroking the animal worm eggs are transferred into human hands, but can also settle in the brain, the bones, the kidneys.
The blood worm, the larvae reach the lungs, the liver. Settling the body, the parasites form a bubble, around which is growing a cyst that is pressing in the process of growth, the organ and disrupts its functional capacity. Inside the cysts are larvae. Squeezing cysts in the body can lead to its necrosis.
Symptoms depend on where the parasite is settled, which organ is damaged. Often the cyst can be detected by ultrasound. And symptoms associated with localization in the right lobe of the liver: symptoms of cholecystitis, the pain in my side. If the cyst on the left side of the liver, then there is heartburn, vomiting, belching. Loss of bile jaundice.
Cyst rupture is allergic reactions up to anaphylactic shock.
Representative of this class of worms is the cat Lucky. This type of worms in children is spread in an area of warehouses. Helminth eggs with the feces fall into the water, where the striking seafood and fish. Poor heat treatment or insufficient salty fish promotes infection opisthorchiasis of humans caused by the cat of good Luck.
The bloodstream the parasite is divided into the bile, the liver, pancreas, gall bladder. The acute phase depends on the location of the infection:
- inflammation of the biliary tract;
- possible yellowing of the skin;
- vomiting, nausea;
- pain throughout the body;
- the intestinal disorder;
- trembling of the limbs.
Without treatment, a month later, the symptoms will deteriorate, but it means that the disease has shifted to chronic form. Worms attached to the mucosa of the suction device and the attachment point develops inflammation. A large number of worms and eggs develop clogged ducts and inflammation, abscesses, organ failure, cirrhosis of the liver.
Shistosoma (blood flukes) person is infected through the pores of the skin through contact with infected fresh water. Are the causative agent of schistosomiasis. Unlike other parasites, the Schistosoma live in the venous system, where they multiply.
This parasite is more common in Africa, South America, Southeast Asia, the Middle East. The length of the worm reaches a size of just 26 millimeters, the amount of which is not more than 0.6 millimeters.
Symptoms appear reaction to eggs helminths:
- enlargement of the spleen, lymph nodes;
- disorder of the intestine.
Of symptoms is slightly different depending on the location of clusters of schistosoma:
- urinary bladder inflammation, abdominal pain, blood in the urine;
- the intestine – is polyps, diarrhea;
- liver – enlargement of the spleen, liver, ascites;
- nervous system – headaches, memory loss, confusion.
Roundworm Ancylostoma is also common in Africa and East Asia. Is the causative agent of hookworm. Habitat – 12-perstny gut. Length of worm in about 14 millimeters. Fed from nutrients that are produced by the intestinal wall. A person can get the infection through unwashed vegetables and dirty hands, but also through the skin, when working with the earth, walking on the lawn barefoot. The parasite through the blood vessels of the liver, lungs, heart.
Ankylostoma infection manifests these symptoms:
- belching, nausea, heartburn, vomiting, diarrhea;
- headache, dizziness;
- cough, dyspnoea, pneumonia, pain in the heart;
- fatigue, chronic fatigue.
Hookworm cause complications: hepatitis, peptic ulcer 12 duodenal ulcer, bronchitis, laryngitis, endocarditis. You can check a diagnosis by using blood tests, fluoroscopy, x-ray.
Because the symptoms when infected by different worms, different, established methods of diagnosis. First of all, the doctor collects the medical history of the patient. Then blood tests, urine, bile, feces, saliva, skin scrapings and biopsy of the internal organs. Also the diagnosis is shown holding ultrasound, MRI, fluoroscopy.