Worms in humans – pathology loisperäisiä, which often is chronic and is accompanied by participation in the invasive process of the different structures of the human body. Worms in humans do not develop immediately after contact them through the so-called "ports", and after some time, the duration of which depends exclusively on the type of pathogen.
Almost all of the worms is one type of parasitism. According to world statistics, the infection of worms in humans is the most common pathological condition occurring in the human body.
In tropical countries more prevalent disease, where different kinds of worms found in the feces of man.
The largest group of this disease are worms that affect the gastro-intestinal tract, and in the second place, that the frequency of occurrence of the worms are affecting the bile ducts. Extremely rare, the presence of intestinal worms in humans the lung parenchyma and organs of the lymphatic system.
The spread of worms can occur in various forms, from egg to adult.
Life worms that belong to a particular group of parasites necessarily requires the presence of it change owners. Worms related to the category of geo-helminthes are characterized by the fact that their larval stage occurs in the natural environment.
Worms in humans most often random.
The eggs of worms in humans can be detected in the lumen of the intestine, and other structures (the liver and the lung parenchyma). Tapeworm in humans is logged is extremely rare and accounts for only 5% of all infestations. Infection the adult worms occur in almost the same mechanisms as children.
Clinical symptoms and the presence of worms in humans can vary in a wide range that depends on the type of parasite. However, the presence of worms in humans is always accompanied by the so-called special syndrome, are common to all types of infestation.
With "in conclusion, worms person" can advise any parasitologist, and the patient must use a parasite medication only under medical supervision. The parasite preventive action is primarily used nonspecific measures of repair and hygiene skills.
The causes of worms in humans
Worms in humans is the different pathogenic variants, the specificity of which depends on the clinical symptoms. Environment a huge number of worms, but not all of them are pathogenic to humans.
Worms are different that they are not able to keep long life to the characters without a master. Infection of worms in the human body occurs through the mouth, the skin. Each type of worm infestation is a special receipt for the worms exposed to the organism.
The propagation speed of worms is directly dependent on climatic conditions. Thus, the favorable climatic conditions of the maturation of helminth infection in humans is a condition of high humidity and high temperature. The propagation process of worms in humans influences the socio-economic level of the population. So, a very high parasitic infestation among the population is observed in countries with low sanitary standards.
The development of worms in humans occurs through different methods of infection. Pinworms are the most common worm infestation in humans, and the parasite is a small round worms are grey-white in color, belonging to the human body of the eggs by mouth, i.e. orally. Chronic worms, as worm infestation is most often caused by samsara jade. Adult pinworms ripens on average two weeks, after which their immigration lower part of the small intestine.
The larvae pinworms secrete enzymes, whose purpose is the destruction of the intestinal wall accompanied by a local inflammatory process. Worms in humans that encourage the development of enterobiasis, is only a mechanical effect on intestinal wall, involved in the formation of many small bleeding erosion.
Worm infestation in humans, provoked by round worms, which can reach very large sizes. At the beginning of the clinical symptoms of worm infestation starts to get eggs into the intestine, with the subsequent arrival of the larvae flow in the bloodstream. The final localization of the larvae of Ascaris is the lung parenchyma. Ascariasis is accompanied by the development of a serious allergic reaction that is due to exposure to the metabolic products of worms.
Another parasitic infestation caused by ingestion of human alimentary way special worm whipworm, has an elongated shape and small settings.
Certain tapeworm human tapeworm can reach a wide huge large sizes. Human infection with this worm occurs when eating contaminated fish. The eggs of helminths in humans is excreted in the feces immediately after infection and only after 25 days.
Trichinella in adults is characterized by active egg production, the mass enters the intestine, where they are maturing and subsequent concentration in skeletal muscle.
A strong worm infestation develops after exposure to larvae of the liver Fluke in the bile ducts. The adult liver Fluke is the same large size. Pork tapeworm parasitizes in humans mainly in the small intestine and the maturation of adults takes at least three months.
The main difference with other Echinococcus tapeworms parasitizing on the human body, is that disease is not for adults and the Finns. The intermediate host of Echinococcus is a dog, and the man gets infected by worms in this situation a common method. The primary localization in the eggs of the tapeworm is to the intestine, where they transformirovalsya in oncospheres, which can spread throughout the body, eventually focusing on the liver and lungs.
Symptoms and signs of worms in humans
Infection of worms in the human body, as well as the appearance of clinical symptoms, as a rule, has special. The acute phase currents of worm infestation in humans can last up to two months, while the longer the symptoms associated with chronic pathological processes, whose duration is several years.
The debut of the acute period of at worms in humans have been recorded, because the penetration of the worm into the body and goes on all the time, when the human body actively produces an immune system reaction in response to introduction of foreign antigens, which is clinically manifested by severe allergic reaction. The acute phase of worm infestation in humans is always accompanied by development of clinical symptoms reflects the General intoxication of the pathogenic process occurring in the body, so at this stage the clinical picture review of the particular this disease is almost impossible.
Chronic helminth infection in humans is characterized by various clinical manifestations, intensity and specificity, which depend on the location of the pathological process, the concentration of the worms and their activity, as well as the possible development of a special affection.
All the worms that trigger the development of intestinal infestation sooner or later lead to the formation of metabolic disorders, which cause digestive tract disorders and malabsorption of beneficial nutrients and vitamins and minerals. During the long invasion in the human body accumulate slag worms, which prevent the reproduction part of the normal intestinal microflora, which causes disorders of the immune system equipment. Thus, the people, the conditions for the development of chronic bacterial diseases.
Different forms of worm infestation are engaged in different timing of the onset of clear clinical symptoms. So, worms characterized by a long latency period, and the clinical picture of ascariasis, instead, makes its debut the first day of worm infestation. Most of the worms that enter the human body, causes the development of the common skin rash, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, muscle pain, and joint disease. During the study the patient is suffering from worms, should be attentive to complaints of people and clinical research, because the majority of etiological variants of this disease associated with the appearance of specific clinical markers that already in the early stages of the disease make a correct diagnosis. An example of such clinical signs can be jaundice opisthorchiasis, swelling of soft tissues trichinosis.
Chronic of this disease, is generally asymptomatic in nature, except when the body is a parasite tapeworm in humans. For enterobiasis characteristic clinical sign of chronic is the appearance of constant itching in the anus.
Specific clinical signs of helminth infection is the appearance of symptoms of hemorrhagic colitis, while the other worm infection characterized by early onset of anemia. The accumulation of worms in the type of roundworm in the intestine, becomes the cause of obturation intestinal mechanical obstruction, and also obstruction of the biliary tract.
Chronic worm infestation in almost all cases, provoking the defeat of the liver parenchyma, gallbladder, which is accompanied by nonspecific clinic hepatitis and cholecystitis. Worm infestation in humans provokes the formation of multiple cystic fluid structures in different organs, asymptomatic, however, a different tendency to the development of inflammatory complications associated with rupture of the capsule and the development of peritonitis. Long-term chronic parasitic infestation in humans born with signs of asthenic syndrome, occurs in the vegetative-vascular type.
Diagnosis of worms in humans
It is a known fact that worms can cause the development of polymorphic clinical symptoms in humans, it is therefore essential step in the diagnosis is a combination of careful collection of epidemiological anamnesis and application of laboratory analysis of parasites.
Diagnostic studies for intestinal worms is of paramount importance and should take place before the appointment of medical treatment. Modern specialized laboratories allow for the short term significantly not only based on the presence of worms in humans, but also to identify the parasite. All available in the Arsenal of laboratory diagnostic methods of experts can be divided into direct and other techniques.
Direct analysis for the presence of worms in the human body is associated with a special techniques, the aim of which is to detect either a worm, or any product part of his life. Small laboratory methods make it possible only to confirm the presence of secondary pathological changes, which occur as a result of the presence of the worm in the human body.
The most outstanding representatives of direct laboratory research is a specific treatment (identification of adult worm or its components visual method for the preparation) and one treatment (the application technique of thick smear method, Kato–Miura, flotation and sedimentation, which allows the detection of eggs or larvae of worms).
Immunological study on the presence of worms in humans has been applied quite recently, and they consist of the use of the skin test and indirect haemagglutination. Serological tests for worms in humans has often used the sign of the efficiency of medical treatment against worms. Also the daily practice of doctors has been introduced, such as laboratory diagnosis, the methods of R. Voll and resonance testing, the use of which can be used to reliably identify worms in humans at any stage of development of the pathological process.
In such a worm infestation in humans, such as Echinococcus and alveoli initial diagnosis is an application of instrumental methods of visualization of ultra sound scanning, x-ray and computed tomography spiral computed tomography.
The role of biological material for the investigation of helminth infection has been used in a variety of natural release of human (fresh faeces, of urine, duodenal contents, sputum, bile, rectum, blood, muscle tissue). Taking into account that the greatest prevalence of intestinal helminth infection forms are often worms in the feces in humans.